Radio host and Christian Apologist Bob Dutko has provided ten proofs for God’s existence, which is 5 extra than expert philosopher and theologian William Lane Craig gave!
But to illustrate exactly where Dutko resides, and it cannot be on Planet Earth, Dutko not only believes that Christianity is the “Only Accurate Religion” and for that reason religions like Islam, Mormonism and the Jehovah’s Witnesses are false religions but is anti-abortion and anti-homosexuality believes life just can not spring from a state of non-life that biological evolution is not possible and that – wait for it – dinosaurs co-existed with humans and had been present and accounted for on Noah’s Ark! What is disturbing is that lots of individuals take him seriously.
So right here are Dutko’s ten arguments for God and my rebuttal to them.
1: The 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Power Can Neither Be Produced or Destroyed
Because power, therefore also matter, can neither be developed nor destroyed, how did the Universe come into existence? Because the Universe had a starting, matter / power had to have been developed out of nothing at all, in violation of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. The only attainable agency that could do that would have to be God because either God developed the Universe out of nothing at all or else the Universe developed itself and of course some thing can not produce its personal existence* so for that reason God did it. Alas for that situation, there is a third solution. If matter / power can neither be developed nor destroyed, then matter / power has often existed and as a result there was a just before the (our) Universe which we can contact the wider Cosmos. If the Cosmos has often existed – of which our Universe is now at the moment a component of – then very of course there is no will need for a creator God.
There is also a different line of reasoning why Dutko’s situation is entirely absurd. Dutko insists that because God developed the laws, relationships and principles of physics – like the 1st Law of Thermodynamics – God can break His developed laws, relationships and principles of physics and as a result God can break the 1st Law of Thermodynamics and produce some thing (i.e. – the Universe) out of absolute nothing at all. Take that sort of logic to its ultimate conclusion. If God can break the pretty physical laws that he developed (i.e. – God can produce some thing from nothing at all) then God can break the pretty framework of logic that He need to have also developed. Hence, it is logical that God can produce a square circle!
*Because God Himself could not produce Himself for that reason God has had an infinite existence. But if that is the case, why not just postulate that the Cosmos** has had an infinite existence and keep away from the unnecessary causal step.
**The Cosmos has often existed even although our Universe had a finite starting inside that bigger context, in the very same way that you had a starting albeit in the bigger context of an general human population that preceded you. The Universe was born of the Cosmos just like you had been born from that wider reality which preceded you.
2: The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy: Order Into Chaos
If, in order to circumnavigate the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, one particular postulates a Universe which has often existed, nicely Dutko has an answer for that – the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Offered the notion of entropy* – order into chaos as time goes by – an infinitely old Universe ought to be in a state of maximum chaos or maximum entropy and clearly this is not the case. Why? You guessed it – God!
As time proceeds from previous to present to future, the general order inside the Universe ought to reduce and chaos ought to boost. The Universe ought to get messier as time goes by, significantly like a teenager’s bedroom. Nonetheless, the Universe seems to be nicely ordered. Why? God performed it and continues to do it.
Alas for Mr. Dutko, there are lots and lots of loopholes right here which do away with God from the Huge Image. While pure probability demands that entropy or disorder increases more than time, there is no requirement that pockets of order could not arise just by pure statistical opportunity. Shuffle a deck of cards adequate instances and now and once again you will randomly get a pocket of order, like all 4 Aces cheek-by-jowl. Additional, there are 3 principles which acts against entropy. The initial is gravity which pulls points collectively and this outcomes in growing order. The second is temperature. Heat tends to make matter extra disorderly cold operates in the reverse. So, steam is extra disordered than water and water is in a state of higher disorder than that of ice. The Universe keeps acquiring colder as it expands. The Universe began off truly hot, but then points cooled down and gravity did its issue. Ultimately, chemistry can operate against growing disorder because numerous chemical compounds have higher affinity for some chemical compounds than for other chemical compounds. A uniform mixture of hydrogen and oxygen atoms is at maximum entropy, but that mixture can defy entropy and chemically combine. A uniform state of water molecules is extra ordered than the uniform state of the mix of person hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and when that uniform state of water molecules cools, order increases and entropy does not boost. We never will need God to clarify the state of relative order and disorder in the Universe.
What Dutko is acquiring confused right here is that he is assuming for the sake of his argument that the (our) Universe is finite and infinitely old and is the be-all-and-finish-all of stuff. If that had been the case then entropy would be at a maximum (though probability would nonetheless dictate random pockets of reduce entropy right here and there) which once again is clearly not the case as Dutko points out. So our Universe cannot be infinitely old regardless of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics and for that reason it had a starting and for that reason God did it.
Nonetheless, IMHO, our Universe is just a component of the infinitely bigger Cosmos in which take place lots of Huge Crunches and lots of Huge Bangs, the transition of one particular into the other restores that component of the Cosmos back to factory settings, like low entropy. But can Huge Crunches and resulting Huge Bangs go on forever? Yes. You see Dutko is forgetting about the energy of gravity to influence and disrupt any uniformly even distribution of stuff (the state of maximum entropy). Even in an infinite Cosmos at maximum entropy, gravity would nonetheless operate drawing collectively clumps of matter ultimately resulting in a localised Huge Crunch with an instant phase transition into a Huge Bang and a resurrection back to a state of low entropy in that unique area of the infinite Cosmos. No will need for God.
*A state of maximum entropy generally is a uniform distribution of matter in random motion and as a result at an general typical temperature constant with that general random motion. If you place a hot water bottle into a cold closed box, heat will leak from the bottle and transfer its power to the air molecules in the box as a result speeding up the typical motion of these molecules. The water molecules in the hot water bottle cool down and as a result slow down. At maximum entropy the motion (temperature) inside the water bottle equals the motion (temperature) inside the rest of the whole box. Now some points are not topic to entropy. These are gravity, magnetism, electric charge, spin and connected. These traits do not disperse equally all through the box but stay concentrated in what ever supply has been placed in the box – like a magnet. Additional, they will stay concentrated inside their supply for all eternity. They are the gifts that maintain on providing, and providing and providing.
3: The Origin of Life: Life Can not Come from Non-Life
As to the origin of life, that is a transition – life from non-life – that is nonetheless unexplained. But some thing at the moment unexplained does not of necessity translate into forever and ever unexplained. The history of science is complete of multi-thousands of events as soon as unexplained that are now taught as totally explained to even elementary kids.
After upon a time it was established ‘fact’ that you could not create organic compounds from inorganic compounds. Then urea was synthesised. Hugely complicated organic chemistry, chemistry component and parcel of the life processes, has now been routinely synthesised below what we think had been organic circumstances. There is no biochemical or organic chemical contained inside living systems whose chemical pathway can not be traced back to the foundations and fundamentals of inorganic chemistry. Against all expectations, hugely complicated organic molecules have been found in interstellar space.
If you take the vast quantity of true estate that the cosmos presents itself has getting, coupled with these most abundant of components in the cosmos, components that just come about to type the backbone of life (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen), coupled with billions upon billions of years for reactions to come about in, coupled with the notion of panspermia, nicely I think a organic explanation for the origin of life is way extra a realistic explanation than a theological one particular. Just saying “God did it” is just as well quick an answer, and an answer that in and of itself hasn’t been demonstrated as established truth. That God developed life is as significantly a theory or a hypothesis as is abiogenesis, only the latter is topic to scientific investigation / experimentation. The God hypothesis is not falsifiable.
We could not have THE answer to the origin of life in our lifetime, but possibly in a 100 years, 1000 years, any college kid could be capable to produce life in a test-tube as component of their biology class. After the answer is basically recognized, it will possibly look clear.
4: Options to God and the Burden of Proof: Explaining Life, the Universe and Almost everything
Two points right here. Firstly, there are thousands of other religions, theologies and deities that all manner of societies and cultures have envisioned as explaining life, the Universe and almost everything. Collectively, that is one particular heck of a lot of options. God is basically very a late-comer and so you will locate God towards the back of the explanatory line.
Additional, science itself has performed a marvellous job of coming to terms with explaining life, the Universe and almost everything particularly thinking of how young the field of what we would term ‘modern’ science basically is. Now that is not to say there are not unknowns but to be explained and competing suggestions in some places but to be resolved, but then as well Rome wasn’t constructed in a day.
As to the burden of proof, the proof of any pudding lies with the particular person or agency or institution that claims some thing is so, as in God exists. There is no burden of proof on anybody claiming that some thing is not so. In truth it is not possible to prove the unfavorable. So the burden of proof that God exists lies with Bob Dutko, and from his ten examples of ‘proof’ provided right here, he fails miserably.
5: Logic, Commonsense & Reasoning: Intelligent Design and style vs. All-natural Choice
How do you clarify the Egyptian Sphinx art functions like paintings and mechanical points like alarm clocks? It is clear according to Dutko that these are functions of an Intelligent Designer, and this is totally accurate. The problems for Dutko is that these examples of his are not living points and for that reason not topic to the laws, principles and relationships that have influence more than living points. It is a fallacy to examine chalk with cheese.
Biological evolution by organic choice / survival of the fittest has been amply demonstrated. Laboratory operate, particularly with fruit flies has amply demonstrated the notion of biological evolution by means of genetic mutations – in this case normally induced. As a different clear instance, take into account the organic choice for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and DDT resistant bugs. Evolution by unnatural choice can be speeded up drastically. The unnatural element is the human species who have drastically altered your standard species and developed multi-dozens of unnatural varieties of very same. Think about all the breeds of cats, dogs, horses, cattle, goldfish, roses, corn, and wheat – and on and on it goes. Mother Nature could have performed the precise very same albeit taking a lot longer to achieve it. If you can alter the standard nature of a species, like producing breeds inside that species, that is evolution.
All-natural evolution is amply demonstrated in the fossil record. Think about the evolution of the horse (just before human domestication and artificial choice). The gradual modifications in size and other characteristics (like toes) is particularly clear from the fossil record.
To make a pretty, pretty, pretty extended story shorter, organic biological evolution is supported by the fossil record, by direct observation by the membership of the human species, and by recognized genetic mechanisms, all of which are in spot to account for biological evolution by organic choice. As for Intelligent Design and style, you can go no additional than the human getting and human physiology itself to disprove Intelligent Design and style. For instance (one particular of numerous), our red blood cells have a far higher affinity for carbon monoxide than for oxygen – a super, ultra, significant screw-up if God did it. And if God does not like foreskins, why produce foreskins in the initial spot?
As for dinosaurs co-current with humans (excluding their descendants, the birds) then young earth creationists will need to document or offer or locate a T-Rex skeleton that consists of the eaten and nicely chomped-up remains of a human corpse inside. We’re not speaking “The Flintstones” right here.
There is by the way an superb series of YouTube videos by Aron Ra explaining biological evolution by organic choice, or, of course, you could study relevant books by Richard Dawkins.
Six: The Origin of Life: A Mathematical Impossibility
As extended as some thing is a mathematical possibility, having said that remote, there can be no such issue as that some thing getting a mathematical impossibility, only a mathematical improbability. So, for instance, if you shuffle and deal from a common deck of cards, sooner or later you WILL deal out in one particular go a Royal Flush. If you reside extended adequate, sooner or later you can toss a fair coin 1000 instances and get 1000 heads up. Think about the quantum mantra – what ever can come about, will come about, provided adequate time.
When it comes to the origin of life, provided the vast quantity of cosmic true estate the organic abundance of components that life (as we know it) is produced up of which mirrors the relative cosmic abundances (i.e. – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) the chemical reactions inherent in these components and billions upon billions of years of time for chemistry to do it is chemistry issue – nicely what ever can come about (and life of course can come about) will come about, provided these 4 essentials – true estate abundant components chemistry time.
Seven: Science Confirms the Bible
Is the Bible compatible with science? Is science compatible with Biblical events? Almost all expert scientists would take situation with the following Biblical tall tales.
What would a mathematician make of the information provided in 1 Kings 7: 23? She’d calculate Pi as getting equal to precisely 3 – no extra and no significantly less. Clearly the writers of 1 Kings failed Mathematics 101 (and God did a pretty poor job of proof-reading His personal holy book).
Any astronomer worthy of the name would just have to barf at the notion that Planet Earth was developed just before the stars, or that stars could fall to Earth, or particularly that the Sun and Moon basically stood nonetheless in the heavens.
And a physicist would have to throw up their hands in horror at the notion that any particular person could basically stroll on water or that there could be a burning bush that wasn’t consumed or that you can produce some thing from nothing at all (i.e. – that multiplication of these loaves / fishes).
Chemists will dispute that water could be turned into wine or that the human physique can be turned into a pillar of salt.
Any meteorologist worth their salt would inform you that it could not rain for 40 days and nights more than the entirety of Planet Earth nor could just pure wind basically component the Red (or Reed) Sea.
A geologist would baulk at the notion that there basically was a worldwide flood because there is no proof of any such an occasion.
Here’s one particular for the geographer. According to 1 Samuel two: eight, the Earth is standing on pillars (not ‘floating’ in space), pillars developed by God. I am shocked that these pillars are not standing in turn on the backs of turtles and that from there on down it is actually turtles all the way down.
Any biochemist would dispute that a human male (Adam) could be developed from just dust (and there is no such issue as the breath-of-life, some thing very distinctive in which means as connected in the Bible from what we’d contact common mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).
Any geneticist would take situation that a human female (Eve) could be developed from a male rib. Eve’s genetic inheritance, solely by means of Adam’s rib, would have ensured she was a male. Jesus in turn would of have to have been a female acquiring ‘his’ sole genetics from his ‘virgin’ mother.
Zoologists would have a field day debating with Accurate Believers the actual existence of a speaking snake and a speaking donkey as nicely as the existence of unicorns.
And what would a botanist make of speaking trees and fig trees and bushes and brambles and vines (Judges 9: eight-15)!
Biologists are ROTFLTAO more than any notion that a human (Jonah) could survive inside a ‘whale’ for 3 days or that spears / shafts turned into serpents / snakes. And what does the length of human hair truly have to do with human strength?
Any healthcare physician can inform you that you can technically execute a resurrection on an individual technically dead for some rather quick period just after their technical death but the resurrection of Jesus falls way, way outdoors of these parameters, not to mention the lack of sophisticated healthcare technologies that was offered 2000 years ago.
Health-related physicians will also take situation with the ‘fact’ that Biblical characters could reside for more than 900 years and that there was a virgin birth and that Sarah got in a household way at the age of 90 and that illness is triggered by demonic or otherwise evil spirits.
Lastly, most historians / archaeologists would take situation with the historical / archaeological accuracy of almost all of the significant Biblical events connected in the Old and New Testaments, like the Battle of Jericho or The Flood or the Exodus or the alleged events at Sodom and Gomorrah because no one particular can basically locate Sodom and Gomorrah.
Eight: Non-Physical Human Traits
How can one particular clarify these immaterial elements of the human getting with out resorting to God? Dutko notes points like our immaterial feelings: enjoy, hate, jealousy, premeditation, pride and on and on it goes. Collectively we can contact all of this just the “thoughts”. Is the thoughts truly immaterial? So exactly where do all of the apparently immaterial components of you – your thoughts – come from? It is back to the some thing (your material physique, brain and biochemistry) from nothing at all (your immaterial thoughts, spirit, soul, essence, psyche, character, what ever) or rather extra appropriately in this case nothing at all originating from some thing on the grounds that you had been a some thing just before you had any immaterial thoughts, essence, character, and so on.
So once again the paradox of the material some thing creating and influencing the immaterial nothing at all (and vice versa) can only be resolved by invoking the supernaturalism’s Prime Dog – God performed it and does it and continues to do it. But is there truly a paradox that needs a “God performed it”? The easiest and possibly most appropriate answer or option is that the material (physique, brain and biochemistry) holds sway more than the material (essence, character, psyche, and so on.) and vice versa (as in the Placebo Impact, and so on.). So all of these supposed / alleged immaterial bits and pieces of you are basically rooted in your personal physique chemistry, your brain chemistry and your general biochemistry, up by way of and such as your cells, tissues, organs, physiological systems, and so on. but particularly centred in that brain thingy of yours – contrary to frequently well-known opinion, the heart has nothing at all to do with romantic enjoy.
The proof that the thoughts / physique – brain interface is just a material interface on each sides of the equation (frequently noted as the thoughts-physique challenge or dualism) is that material points like drugs and illness and injury can and do have a profound impact on your essence or collectively your thoughts and vice versa (getting currently noted the Placebo Impact). Or possibly considering ‘immaterial’ erotic thoughts that can create notable material physiological reactions.
Sorry Mr. Dutko, there is no requirement for God right here.
Nine: The Existence of the Supernatural: Defying the Laws, Principles and Relationships of Physics
Concerning supernatural phenomena, assuming such manifestations are truly true and not just all hoaxes, illusions and delusions, then all of these numerous supernatural are just bits and pieces of the organic globe, Mother Nature’s globe, not but adequately explained by science. When science does come to terms with these supernatural bits and pieces, these bits and pieces jut turn out to be the organic they join Mother Nature’s realm. There is a pretty, pretty extended history illustrating this – comets, ball lightning and even typical lightning, the aurora, shooting ‘stars’, earthquake lights and how some animals can see in the dark (like bats and snakes) are all situations in point of the ‘supernatural’ morphing into the organic realm.
Additional, if there truly is a supernatural separate and apart from the organic, that does not automatically translate into proof of the Christian God. The Bible could be complete of supernatural miracles but they can hardly be place below the microscope at this late date. What is God performed for an encore in extra current instances? In any occasion, the ancient Greek globe of the Olympian gods and goddesses was a supernatural globe ditto that of the ancient Egyptian pantheon ditto the worlds of the ancient Aztecs, Mayans, Incas, and the North American Indians. Even E.T. qualifies on the grounds of Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law – any sufficiently sophisticated technologies is indistinguishable from magic to these not in possession of or in the understanding of such technologies.
So the supernatural has no be-all-and-finish-all bearing on the existence of God or even qualifies as proof for the existence of God.
Ten: The Life, Miracles and Resurrection of Jesus
Not all Biblical and ancient Close to / Mid East historical scholars agree that Jesus even existed far significantly less was divine. That alone provided the thumbs’ down to Jesus as proof of God’s existence. There just is not any independent historical or archaeological proof for the actual existence of Jesus outdoors of the New Testament. Outdoors of the New Testament, almost everything about Jesus is “alleged” as in this place is “alleged” to be his birthplace and this place is “alleged” to be his tomb. Ought to Jesus be just a fictional character, nicely humans have invented actually millions of fictionalised literary characters. Lacking independent proof, why should not Jesus be treated as such? But if you think in the actual existence of Jesus, why not also think in the actual existence of Hercules? Hercules was also a man born of divine stock (i.e. – fathered by Zeus). Hercules performed quite a few heroic and frequently seemingly not possible deeds, so significantly so that his good results could even be termed miraculous. Ultimately, Hercules was murdered, but who then was resurrected from the dead to be at dwelling with the gods. You say there is no independent proof for Hercules. Nicely that equally applies to Jesus as well.
In the final evaluation, why postulate and assume right here the Christian God? Why not one particular of the multi-dozens of other supernatural and creator deities that humans have worshipped more than the aeons. Postulating the Christian God is just leaping to a conclusion with out any explanation to do so vis-a-vis all of these other alternatives, one particular of which is of course, no deity at all.