Scientific management theory was proposed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the initially decade of the 20th century, is the initially coherent theory of administration. According to this theory the identical principles of management can be applied to all social entities. The governing policies for our houses, farms, state, organization, and church, have the identical underlying principles. It emphasized on improvements in the reduced level of the firm rather than at top rated management. It aimed at studying the partnership amongst the physical nature of function and the physiological nature of the workmen. It stressed upon specialization, predictability, technical competence and rationality for enhancing the organizational efficiency and economy.
Taylor gave the following 4 principles which according to him can be applied universally:
-Construct a science for every element of a man's function. -Scientifically pick, train, teach and create workmen. -Management ought to totally cooperate with workers. -The division of function and duty amongst management and the workers need to be shared equally.
Scientific management, according to Taylor, entails a full mental revolution on the element of workers towards their duties, function, fellow males and their employers and on the element of managers, towards their workers and their difficulties.
Tactics The procedures of scientific management facilitate the application of principles of scientific management described beneath:
FUNCTIONAL FOREMANSHIP: Beneath this, a worker is supervised and guided by eight functional foremen. 4 of these are accountable for organizing viz. Order-of-function-and-route-clerk, Instruction-card clerk, Time-and-expense clerk, Shop Clerk. The other 4 are accountable for execution and serve on shop floor namely, Gang boss, speed boss, inspector and Repair boss.
MOTION STUDY: It entails the observation of all the motions comprised in a distinct job and then determination of very best set of motions.
TIME STUDY: It is applied to establish the common time for completion of function.
DIFFRENTIAL PIECE Price Program: Beneath this strategy, a worker is paid a low piece price up to a common, a big bonus at the common and a larger piece price above the common.
EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE: It entails setting up a big day-to-day activity by the management, with reward for reaching targets and penalty for not meeting it.
Scientific management came to be criticized and opposed by numerous sections for the following motives:
-It was concentrated on the shop floor. It did not strain on the larger levels of management. -It was criticized as a mechanistic theory of organization as it neglected the human side of the organization. It treated worker as a machine and sought to make it as effective as machine itself. -It was criticized on the ground that it underestimated and oversimplified human motivation by explaining human motivation in terms of monetary elements only. -It was also opposed by the managers due to two motives. Initial, they would drop their judgment and discretion due to the adoption of scientific solutions. Second, their function and responsibilities increases beneath Taylorism.